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连载 | 话说中国宝武130年(二): 张之洞创办汉阳铁厂

2020年08月18日 来源:德甲外围_首页官方 作者: 施志 浏览: 打印 分享到:

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1906年的汉阳铁厂

张之洞创办汉阳铁厂

ruguoshuojiangnanzhizaojuliangangchangshiweijiejuejungongyuanliaoerjian,neiweiyuzhangjiangzhongyoudehanyangtiechangzeyintieluerqi。

德甲外围zhongguodetielujianshexingqiyu1870nian,yiwusongtieluhetangxu(tangshanzhixugezhuang)tieludejiansheweibiaozhi。1889nian4yue,liangguangzongduzhangzhidongzouqingxiujianluhan(lugouqiaozhihankou)tielu。yinmeiyouzijidexiandaihuagangtiegongye,tielujianshesuoyongcailiaojunxiangguowaigouzhi,erduiyuluhantielu,zhangzhidongzelizhuxianchuangbantiechang,yongzhongguozijizhizaodegangguilaigoutongzheiyinanbeidadongmai。

tiechangjianzaina?lihongzhangjianyijinmeikuangshechang;zhangqizhangkongyangwudeshengxuanhuaijianyishechangyudayehuangshigangdongshou,yibianjiujinquyongdayetiekuang;bilishikuangshibainaifuzhuzhangbachangzhishezaiwuchangcheng;hubeitiezhengjuzongbancaixiyongheyingguorenhengli·heboshengzeqingxiangyuzaiwuchangfuhehuangshigangzhijianlingmigaodi。

1890nian,zhangzhidongdairendaogedikancha。chuanshuoyixingrenzaikanchatuzhongtuyudayu,duojinguiyuansibiyu。fangzhangwenminglaiyou,bianshuodao: “bisizaiguishanjiaoxiayouyichudichan,yueyouqianmu,weikaishanbizubaiguangfashisuogou,dangchurendingcichunaifengshuibaodi,liangbainianhoujiangyounengrenzaicilianchuwujin,huijihoushi。”

ciri,yuguotianqing,zhangzhidongdaodabieshan(guishan)chakan,jumusiwang,dunjuekailang。zheilitianchoucunshe,yipaigufeng,zhangzhidongkanhoufeichangmanyi,cheng: “yushengchengduian,keyishichangqinwangducha。youjinhankou,jianglaiyunxiaogangtiehuoyibian。weixutianzhudijijiuchi,zeshengzhangbuyan。”

1890nian12yue23ri,hanyangtiechangdianji。

hanyangtiechangdejianshelishiyue3nian,jiansheheshebeianzhuangjunzaiwaijijishurenyuanzhidaoxiajinxing,waifangjishuzhidaozhuyaoshiyouyingguodisaidechangpailaidezhuanjiachengdan。gongrenfangmian,tiechangpinqinglejinqianminglaiziguangdong、shanghaidengdiderenyuanjinxingshigongjianshe。duiyuxiandaigangtiegongyejichuqueshidezhongguolaishuo,zheishiyigejileijingyanhepeiyangbentugongrendeguocheng。1893niandi,hanyangtiechangjibenjiancheng,zhuyaobaokuomatouhezhuangxiechang、gaolugongchang(baokuogaoluhehuayanshi)、lianshutiechang、madingpingluliangangchang、beisaimaizhuanluliangangchang、yagangchang、zhuzaochejian、tiekuangshihemeitanduichangdeng8gebufen。

hanyangtiechangde16genyancongzhichayuntian,zuigaozheda80mi,chaoguoguishan,yourujurenzhanqi,fukanshenzhoudadi。

raner,tiechangwangongzhijiquexianrulejiquezijinyouquejiaotandekunjing。zhangzhidongyemianlingaocengtongliaomen“bangangtieshilangfeiqiancai”dedanhehezhize。poyuyali,hanyangtiechangzaihaibuwanquanjubeitiaojiandeqingkuangxiadejiawaiweileshishengchan,bingyu1894nian6yue28rijuxingshichandianli,1haogaolu、jiaolianshutielu、liangang、yagangtongshishishengchan。6yue30ri,hanyangtiechangchutie。

德甲外围zheishizhongguojindaishishangdiyijiachenggongtouchandedaxinggangtielianheqiye,biribendiyijiajindaigangtieqiyebafanzhitiesuotouchanzaole7nian。zhangzhidongshifenxinxi,budanchuxilekaigongdianli,erqiezaijiexialaideyizhouli,meitiandouqianwangshicha。

1896nian5yue24ri,qingmozhumingqiyejiashengxuanhuaijiebanhanyangtiechang。hanyangtiechangyouguanbangaiweiguandushangban。

德甲外围jingguoliangnianduodediaoshi,hanyangtiechang1haogaoluzai1896nian11yuehoudadaojiaowendingdeyunxingzhuangkuang,shengtiepingjunrichanliangzhujianjiejingaolu75dundeshejizhi。liangangheyagangzejinglilegengzhangshijiandediaoshi,zhi1897nianwuliuyuejian,liangangshixianzhengchangshengchan,7yueyazhichudiyipigangcai。zhihoushengchanjianquwending,beisaimaizhuanluliangangdeyuechanliangweichizai2000~2500dun,pingluliangangweichizai400~500dundeshuiping。

德甲外围1897nianyihou, hanyangtiechangjibenshixianlecongshengtieyeliandaoliangangzaidaoyagangdegangtieyitihuashengchan。zheiyishiqi,gangguishizuizhongyaodezuizhongchanpin,zhangangcaichuchanzongliangde75%。1903nianqian,hanyangtiechangshengchandegangguizhuyaogongyingluhantielujianshe。

德甲外围1904nian,hanyangtiechangqidongdaguimojishugaizao,yijianshedierqigongcheng。dangshi,qingzhengfucaizhengbinlinbengkui,jidaijiejuezijinwenti。dangnian,hanyangtiechangyuribenxingyeyinxingqianding300wanriyuanjiekuanhetong,hetongyuedinghanyangtiechangyimeinianbushaoyu7wandundetoudengdayetiekuangshichanghaijiekuan,qixianwei30nian。zheifenhetongrangribenbafanzhitiesuohuodelewendingdetiekuangshiziyuan,yeweihanyangtiechangjinxingdierqidaguimojianshetigonglezijin。zhi1911nian,hanyangtiechangyongyouliantielu3zuo、lianganglu6zuo,nianchanshengtieyue8wandun、gangjin4wandun、ganggui2wanyudun。

suirangaizaohoudehanyangtiechangchuxianleshengji,danyouyuqingzhengfusangshiguanshuizizhuquandengyuanyin,hanyangtiechanghuolishenwei,xuyaojixutourushubaiwanliangbaiyincainengweichishengchan。1908nianchu,shengxuanhuaiyuhuguangzongduzhaoerxunxiangqingtinghuizou,nijianghanyangtiechangyudayetiekuang、jiangxipingxiangmeikuanghebing,chenglihanyepingmeitiechangkuanggufenyouxiangongsi(jiancheng“hanyepinggongsi”),yudingzhaogu2000wanyuan(yinyuan)。3yue12ri,qingtingyizhun。youci,hanyangtiechanggaiweiwanquanshangban。1909nian,hanyepinggongsidejiawaiweidiyijiegudongdahui,gongyou472minggudongdaohui。youyujingyingbushan,hanyepinggongsiyizhikaojuwaizhaiduri。1913nian,hanyepinggongsiyubafanzhitiesuoqianding1500wanriyuandejiekuanhetong,yigongsiquanbuzichanzuodiya,yongtoudengkuangshiheshengtiehaikuan。jiezhi1930nian,hanyepinggongsigongxiangribendacangzu、xingyeyinxingjisirenzibenjiajiekuan32ci(buhanduanqijiekuan),bingxianhoubeipopinqingduomingribenrenweigongsizuigaoguwengongchengshihehuijiguwen。wudidongsidejiekuan,xiangchenzhongdejiaosuoyiyangsisidilezhuhanyepinggongsidebozi。tongshi,ribenguwenhushidandan、bubujinbi,zhubukongzhibingzhangwolehanyepinggongsidejingyingdaquan。hanyepinggongsiliangqiang、zhengzhazheyibubuzoujin“handong”。

diyicishijiedazhanjieshuhou,suizhegangtieshijiadedimi,hanyangtiechangshoururuijian,gezhongmaodunjihua,zourulelianniankuisundeexingxunhuan。1919nian,hanyangtiechang1hao、2haogaolutinglian。1921nian,guominzhengfugaibiangangguibiaozhun,zaochenghanyangtiechangjin5wandungangguibaofei,lianganglutinggong。

tinggonghou,gongrendeshenghuoxianrulekunanzhizhong。

德甲外围1922nian12yue10ri,hanyangsanmatoulaojiexiandegewaiyongjihemangliu,buduanyouchengqunjieduiderencongmatouzoulai,qizhongyouxieshigedigongrenyundongdelingxiu,youxieshiganlaicaixiexinwendejizhe,youxieshitongqinggongrenmingyun、shenzhiyimimijiaruzhongguogongchandangdejinbuqingnian,dangengduodeshiyizhepojiu、kouyingeyidechanyegongren,tamenyingyaoqianlaicanjiahanyepingzonggonghuidechenglidahui。

《chenbao》jizhejishulezheiyirenaochangjing: huichangdebuzhihenshizhuangguan,gejiesuozengdebianelianyu,linlangmanbi,daohuideren,jugaihuigongyougusuan,buxiashuqian。dahuizhuxililisanzhanzaitaishang,muguangwenhedizhushizhetaixiadetingzhong,shuo: “womenhanyeping3wanduogongyou,suochudejingkuangfeichangcandanbeiai,xiangxindajianengganshoudaozheicengcengtongku,yedoujuedeshimeiyoutuanjieyituzijiudeyuangu。”taixiaderenpinpindiantou,lilisanhuidongquantou,jixudashengyanjiang: “chengliyigechanyezuhedehanyepingzonggonghui,zheishigongrenyundongbiyaodeyaoqiu,yeshishehuijinhuadebiranjieguo。zonggonghuichenglihoudezerenhesuobaodexiwangshi: weigongrenqiuzhengzhifalvzhibaozhang,qiujingjizhigaishan,qiurengehediweizhizenggao。”taixiaxiangqiyipianleimingbandezhangsheng。

zaizheicidahuishang,liushaoqibeituijuweizonggonghuiweiyuanzhang,xiangzhongfadanrenfuweiyuanzhang。

chenglibujiudezhongguogongchandangkaishidengshangzhongguogongrenyundongdewutai。

danshi,hanyangtiechangdemingyunbingmeiyoururenmenqiwangdeneiyanggaibian。1923nian,4haogaolutingchan。1924nian10yue,3haogaolutingchan。zhici,hanyangtiechangdeliantieheliangangluquanbuguanting。 

1924nian,liushaoqizhuanxiele《jiujiuhanyepinggongsi》yiwen,tahuyuzhengfuheshehuiyoushizhishiwanjiuhanyepinggongsi。raner,zaifenbenglixidejiuzhongguo,hanyepinggongsideemengzhudinglezhinengjixu。jihanyangtiechangguantinghou,1928nian,pingxiangmeikuangbeijiangxishengzhengfujieguan,jinliuxiadayetiekuangjixushengchan,bingbeiribenrenlaolaokongzhi,chedilunweiribenzhitiesuodeyuanliaoshuchujidi。

qingchaomonian,hanyangtiechangdechanpincengyiduxingxiaoaodaliya、nanyanggeguojixianggangdiqu,jiulianmeiguoxifanggangtiegongsiyepaidaibiaoqianlaidinggou。ruguobushishijudongdang、zhanhuopinreng,renmenyouliyouxiangxinzheigexifangrenyanzhongde“20shijixiongchang”haihuidaijishijiegengduodejingtan。

zaizainanshenzhongdejiuzhongguo,hanyangtiechangwulishixiantademengxiang,dantazaizhongguojindaigangtiegongyeshishangshuqileyizuobuxiudejinianbei,beixifangshiwei“zhongguojuexingdebiaozhi”。

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